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Sinusoidal Alternating Voltage for a Capacitor

If a capacitor is subjected to a sinusoidal alternating voltage of the form:

CAPACITOR IN ALTERNATING CURRENT AC CIRCUITS !

the resulting capacitor current i is also sinusoidal and leads the voltage by the following angle:

CAPACITOR IN ALTERNATING CURRENT AC CIRCUITS !

The current is therefore determined by the equation:

CAPACITOR IN ALTERNATING CURRENT AC CIRCUITS !

The voltage and current characteristics are displayed in the diagram below.  

CAPACITOR IN ALTERNATING CURRENT AC CIRCUITS !

The capacitor voltage attains its maximum value at the instant when the current is zero, and vice versa.

In a capacitor circuit, the current leads the applied voltage by j = 90°.

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