Single Pole Single Throw [ SPST ] Switch

Single Pole Single Throw [ SPST ] Switch

A graphic illustrating an SPST switch. The circuit symbol and a simple diagram representing the switch are shown and labelled.

SPST (single pole, single throw): A basic on/off switch that turns a single circuit on or off. An SPST switch has two terminals: one for the input and one for the output. SPDT (single pole, double throw): An SPDT switch routes one input circuit to one of two output circuits.

A Single Pole Single Throw (SPST) switch is a switch that only has a single input and can connect only to one output. This means it only has one input terminal and only one output terminal.

Most electronic circuits contain an on/off switch. In addition to the on/off switch, many circuits contain switches that control how the circuit works or activate different features of the circuit.

One way to classify switches is by the connections they make. If you were under the impression that switches simply turn circuits on and off, guess again. Two important factors that determine what types of connections a switch makes are

  • Poles: A switch pole refers to the number of separate circuits that the switch controls. A single-pole switch controls just one circuit. A double-pole switch controls two separate circuits.

    A double-pole switch is like two separate single-pole switches that are mechanically operated by the same lever, knob, or button.

  • Throw: The number of throws indicates how many different output connections each switch pole can connect its input to. The two most common types are single-throw and double-throw:

A single-throw switch is a simple on/off switch that connects or disconnects two terminals. When the switch is closed, the two terminals are connected and current flows between them. When the switch is opened, the terminals are not connected, so current does not flow.

SPST (single pole, single throw): A basic on/off switch that turns a single circuit on or off. An SPST switch has two terminals: one for the input and one for the output.

SPDT (single pole, double throw): An SPDT switch routes one input circuit to one of two output circuits. This type of switch is sometimes called an A/B switch because it lets you choose between two circuits, called A and B. An SPDT switch has three terminals: one for the input and two for the A and B outputs.

DPST (double pole, single throw): A DPST switch turns two circuits on or off. A DPST switch has four terminals: two inputs and two outputs.

DPDT (double pole, double throw): A DPDT switch routes two separate circuits, connecting each of two inputs to one of two outputs. A DPDT switch has six terminals: two for the inputs, two for the A outputs, and two for the B outputs.

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The mechanism of a switch may be operated directly by a human operator to control a circuit (for example, a light switch or a keyboard button), may be operated by a moving object such as a door-operated switch, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow. A relay is a switch that is operated by electricity. Switches are made to handle a wide range of voltages and currents; very large switches may be used to isolate high-voltage circuits in electrical substations.

The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.

A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock.

An ideal switch would have no voltage drop when closed, and would have no limits on voltage or current rating. It would have zero rise time and fall time during state changes, and would change state without "bouncing" between on and off positions.

Practical switches fall short of this ideal; they have resistance, limits on the current and voltage they can handle, finite switching time, etc. The ideal switch is often used in circuit analysis as it greatly simplifies the system of equations to be solved, but this can lead to a less accurate solution. Theoretical treatment of the effects of non-ideal properties is required in the design of large networks of switches, as for example used in telephone exchanges.

Contacts:

A toggle switch in the "on" position.

In the simplest case, a switch has two conductive pieces, often metal, called contacts, connected to an external circuit, that touch to complete (make) the circuit, and separate to open (break) the circuit. The contact material is chosen for its resistance to corrosion, because most metals form insulating oxides that would prevent the switch from working. Contact materials are also chosen on the basis of electrical conductivity, hardness (resistance to abrasive wear), mechanical strength, low cost and low toxicity.

Sometimes the contacts are plated with noble metals. They may be designed to wipe against each other to clean off any contamination. Nonmetallic conductors, such as conductive plastic, are sometimes used. To prevent the formation of insulating oxides, a minimum wetting current may be specified for a given switch design.

Contact Terminology:

Triple-pole single-throw (TPST or 3PST) knife switch used to short the windings of a 3‑phase wind turbine for braking purposes. Here the switch is shown in the open position.

In electronics, switches are classified according to the arrangement of their contacts. A pair of contacts is said to be "closed" when current can flow from one to the other. When the contacts are separated by an insulating air gap, they are said to be "open", and no current can flow between them at normal voltages. The terms "make" for closure of contacts and "break" for opening of contacts are also widely used.

The terms pole and throw are also used to describe switch contact variations. The number of "poles" is the number of electrically separate switches which are controlled by a single physical actuator. For example, a "2-pole" switch has two separate, parallel sets of contacts that open and close in unison via the same mechanism. The number of "throws" is the number of separate wiring path choices other than "open" that the switch can adopt for each pole. A single-throw switch has one pair of contacts that can either be closed or open. A double-throw switch has a contact that can be connected to either of two other contacts, a triple-throw has a contact which can be connected to one of three other contacts, etc.

In a switch where the contacts remain in one state unless actuated, such as a push-button switch, the contacts can either be normally open (abbreviated "n.o." or "no") until closed by operation of the switch, or normally closed ("n.c." or "nc") and opened by the switch action. A switch with both types of contact is called a changeover switch. These may be "make-before-break" ("MBB" or shorting) which momentarily connects both circuits, or may be "break-before-make" ("BBM" or non-shorting) which interrupts one circuit before closing the other.

 

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