NPN Transistor 2N2712 as a Switch

NPN Transistor 2N2712 Switching

 NPN Transistor 2N2712  as a Switch:


2N2712 Characteristics/Parameters

Component CharacteristicsComponent Parameters
Type Designator2N2712
Package Type
  1. Transistor Outline Package-92
  2. Standard Cylindrical Package
FamilyBJT, NPN
Material of TransistorSilicon
PolarityNPN
Maximum Power Dissipation
  1. 600mW
  2. 360mW
Maximum Collector to Base Voltage18V
Maximum Collector to Emitter Voltage18V
Maximum Emitter Base Voltage5V
Maximum Collector Current
  1. 500mA
  2. 100mA
Minimum hFE75
Maximum hFE225
FunctionAmplification/Switch
Manufacturer
  1. Central Semiconductor Corp
  2. American Microsemiconductor

 Three modes of Operating Region of Transistors are:

  1. Active Region
  2. Saturation Region
  3. Cut-off Region

1- Active Region Characteristics:

  • In 'Active Region' , the transistor operate as an 'Amplifier'
  • The Junction Base-Emitter is forward Biased.
  • The Junction Collector-Base is Reverse Biased.

2- Saturation Region Characteristics:

  • ​​In 'Saturation' region, the transistor operates as an 'Closed Switch'.
  • The 'Base' Electrode is Connected to Supply Voltage [ Vcc ]
  • The Junction Base-Emitter Voltage is greater than 0.6V i.e VBE > 0.6V.
  • The Junction Base-Emitter is Forward Biased.
  • The Junction Collector-Base is Forward Biased.
  • Maximum Saturation Collector Current [ Ic ] flows, i.e [ Ic=Vcc/R]
  • This condition of transistor is act as a 'Fully-ON' and this is 'Saturation Region'.
  • Collector to Emitter Voltage [ VCE ] is approximately equal to Zero ideally. i.e [ VCE = 0V ]

​3- Cut-Off Region Characteristics:

  • In 'Cut-off' region, the transistor operate as an 'Open Switch'.​
  • The 'Base' Electrode is Grounded to zero Voltage [ 0V ].
  • The Junction Base-Emitter Voltage is less than 0.6V i.e VBE < 0.6V.
  • The Junction Base-Emitter is Reverse Biased.
  • The Junction Collector-Base is Reverse Biased.
  • No Collector Current [ Ic ] flows, i.e [ Ic=0 ].
  • This condition of transistor is act as a 'Fully-OFF ' and this is 'Cut-Off Region'.
  • Collector to Emitter Voltage [ VCE ] is approximately equal to Supply Voltage [ VCC ] [ VCE = VCC ]

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