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# Chapter#2 - INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING

Upon Completion of this chapter, You will be able to:

• Convert any number from base 22, base 10m or base 16 to any of the other two bases
• Add and subtract hex numbers
• Represent any binary number in 2's complement
• Represent an alphanumeric string in ASCII code
• Describe the logical operations AND, OR, NOT, XOR, NAND, and NOR
• Use logic gates to diagram simple circuits
• Explain the difference between a bit, a nibble, a byte, and a word
• Mathematical definitions of the terms kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, and terabytes
• Explain the difference between RAM and ROM and describe their use
• Describe the purpose of the major components of a computer system
• List the 3 types of buses found in computer systems
• List the major components of the CPU and describe the purpose of each

SECTION  I - NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS

• SECTION  I-1: Decimal and Binary Number System
• SECTION  I-2: Converting from Decimal to binary
• SECTION  I-3: Converting from Binary to Decimal
• SECTION  I-4: Hexadecimal Number System
• SECTION  I-5: Converting Between Binary and Hex
• SECTION  I-6: Converting from Decimal to Hex
• SECTION  I-7: Converting from Hex to Decimal
• SECTION  I-8: Counting in Bases 10, 2, and 16
• SECTION  I-9: Addition of Binary and Hex Numbers
• SECTION  I-10: 2's Complement
• SECTION  I-11: Addition and Subtraction of Hex Numbers
• SECTION  I-12: ASCII Code

SECTION  II - DIGITAL SYSTEM

• SECTION  II-1: Binary Logic and Logic Gates
• SECTION  II-2: Logic Design Using Gates
• SECTION  II-3: Decoders and Flip-Flop Application of Logic gates

SECTION  III: Inside the Computer

• SECTION  III-1: K, mega, giga, byte, ROM, RAM
• SECTION  III-2: Internal Organization of Computers
• SECTION  III-3: Data Bus and Address Bus in Computers
• SECTION  III-4: CPU, RAM and ROM in Computers
• SECTION  III-5: Inside Central Processing Units
• SECTION  III-6: Internal Working of Computers

Basic Introduction of Chapter # 2

In this chapter, we will cover the Binary number system represents all numbers with a combination of the two binary digits, 0 and 1. The use of binary systems is necessary in digital computers because only two states can be represented: ON or OFF. Any binary number can be coded directly into its hexadecimal equivalent for the convenience of humans. Converting from binary/hex to decimal, and vice versa, is a straight forward process that becomes easy with practice. The ASCII code is a binary code used to represent alphanumeric data internally in the computer. It is frequently used in peripheral devices for input and output.

The Logic gates AND, OR, and inverter are the basic building blocks of simple circuits. NAND, NOR and XOR gates are also used to implement circuit design. Half-adders and Full-adders were given as examples of the use of logic gates for circuit design. Decoders are used to detect certain addresses. Flip-flops are used to latch its data until other circuits are ready for it.

The major components of any computer system are the CPU, memory, and I/O devices. "Memory" refers to temporary or permanent storage of data. In most systems, memory can be accessed as bytes of words. The terms kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, and terabytes are used to refer to large numbers of bytes. There are two main types of memory in computer systems. RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM Read Only Memory. RAM is used for temporary storage of programs and data. ROM is used for permanent storage of programs and data. All components of the computer system are under the control of the CPU. Peripheral devices such as I/O (input / Output) devices allow the CPU to communicate with humans or other computer systems.

There are 3 types of buses in computers: Address, Control and Data. Control buses are used by the CPU to direct other devices. The address bus is used by the CPU to locate a device or a memory location. Data buses are used to send information back and forth between the CPU and other devices.

Now we will go though each section of this chapter # 2 one by one in details...