SECTION III-4: CPU, RAM and ROM in Computers

For the CPU to process information, the data must be stored in RAM or ROM. The function of ROM in computers is to provide information that is fixed and permanent. This is information such as tables for characters patterns to be displayed on the video monitor, or programs that are essential to the working of the computer, such as programs for testing and finding the total amount of RAM installed on the system, or for displaying information that can change with time, such as various versions of the operating system and application packages such as work processing or tax calculation packages. These programs are loaded from the hard device into RAM to be processed by the CPU. The CPU cannot get the information from the disk directly because the disk is too slow. The CPU first seeks the information to be processed from RAM or ROM. Only if the data is not there does the CPU seek it from a mass storage device such as disk, and then it transfers the information to RAM. For this reason, RAM and ROM are sometimes referred to as primary memory and disks are called secondary memory.


Block Diagram of the Internal Organization of the Computers




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