# May 2017

## SECTION I-7: Converting from Hex to Decimal

Converting from Hex to to decimal can also be approached in two ways:

1. Convert from Hex to Binary and then to Decimal Example is demonstrated below.
2. Convert directly from Hex to Decimal by summing the weight of all digits.

## SECTION I-6: Converting from Decimal to Hex Number System

Converting from Decimal to Hex can be approached in two ways:

## SECTION I-5: Converting Between Binary and Hex Number System

To represent a Binary Number as its equivalent Hexadecimal number, start from the right and group 4 bits at a time, replacing each 4-bit binary number with its Hex equivalent. To convert from Hex to Binary, each Hex digits is replaced with its 4-bit binary equivalent. This is demonstrated below in Examples.

## SECTION I-4: Hexadecimal Number System

Base 16, or the Hexadecimal system is used as a convenient representation of binary numbers. It is much easier for a human being to represent a string of 0s and 1s such as 100010010110 as its Hexadecimal equivalent of 896H. The binary system has two digits 0 and 1. The base 10 system has 10 digits, 0 through 9. The Hexadecimal, base 16, system has 16 digits. In base 16, the first 10 digits 0 to 9, are the same as in decimal, and for the remaining 6 digits, the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F are used.

## SECTION I-3: Converting from Binary to Decimal

To convert from Binary to Decimal, it is important to understand the concept of weight associated with each digit position. Recall the weight of numbers in the Base 10 system. Each digit position of a number in Base 2 has a weight associated with it.

## SECTION I-2: Converting from Decimal to Binary

One method of converting from decimal to binary is to divide the decimal number by 2 repeatedly, keeping track of the remainders, This process continues until the quotient becomes zero. The remainders are then written in reverse order to obtain the binary number. This is demonstrated below.

## SECTION I-1: Decimal and Binary Number System

Human begins use bae 10 (decimal) arithmetic. Computers use base 2 (binary) system. Although there has been speculation that the origin of the base 10 system is the fact that human beings have 10 fingers, there is no speculation about the reason behind the use of the binary system in computers. The binary system is used in computers because  1 and 0 represent the two voltage levels of ON and OFF.

## Chapter#2 - INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING

Upon Completion of this chapter, You will be able to:

## SECTION II-5: PIC micro-controller I/O Pins, Peripherals, trainer & other microcontrollers

SECTION  II-5: PIC micro-controller I/O Pins, Peripherals, trainer & other Micro-controllers

PIC Micro-controller I/O Pins:

## SECTION II-4: PIC micro-controller data RAM and EEPROM

SECTION  II-4: PIC micro-controller data RAM and EEPROM

## SECTION II-3: PIC micro-controller Program ROM, with UV-EPROM and Flash

SECTION  II-3: PIC micro-controller Program ROM, with UV-EPROM and Flash

PIC Micro-controller Program ROM:

## SECTION II-2: PIC18 Features

SECTION  II-2: PIC18 Features

The PIC18 has a RISC architecture that comes with some standard features such as on-chip program (code) ROM, data RAM, data EEPROM, timers, ADC, and USART and I/O ports. 