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# Alternating Current Signals - AC Signals

** A graphic illustrating four different a.c. voltage graphs. The voltage-time graphs for a sine wave, a triangle wave, a square wave and a sawtooth wave are shown. The wavelength and the area under each curve are labelled.**

**Alternating current** (**AC**), is an electric current in which the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction, whereas in direct current (**DC**, also **dc**), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations *AC* and *DC* are often used to mean simply *alternating* and *direct*, as when they modify *current* or *voltage*.

AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves.

Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. These types of alternating current carry information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal, such as sound (audio) or images (video). These currents typically alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission.

An alternating function or **AC Waveform** on the other hand is defined as one that varies in both magnitude and direction in more or less an even manner with respect to time making it a “Bi-directional” waveform. An AC function can represent either a power source or a signal source with the shape of an *AC waveform* generally following that of a mathematical sinusoid as defined by:- A(t) = A_{max} x sin(2πƒt).

The term AC or to give it its full description of Alternating Current, generally refers to a time-varying waveform with the most common of all being called a **Sinusoid** better known as a **Sinusoidal Waveform**. Sinusoidal waveforms are more generally called by their short description as **Sine Waves**. Sine waves are by far one of the most important types of AC waveform used in electrical engineering.

The shape obtained by plotting the instantaneous ordinate values of either voltage or current against time is called an **AC Waveform**. An AC waveform is constantly changing its polarity every half cycle alternating between a positive maximum value and a negative maximum value respectively with regards to time with a common example of this being the domestic mains voltage supply we use in our homes.

This means then that the *AC Waveform* is a “time-dependent signal” with the most common type of time-dependant signal being that of the **Periodic Waveform**. The periodic or AC waveform is the resulting product of a rotating electrical generator. Generally, the shape of any periodic waveform can be generated using a fundamental frequency and superimposing it with harmonic signals of varying frequencies and amplitudes.

Alternating voltages and currents can not be stored in batteries or cells like direct current (DC) can, it is much easier and cheaper to generate these quantities using alternators or waveform generators when they are needed. The type and shape of an AC waveform depends upon the generator or device producing them, but all AC waveforms consist of a zero voltage line that divides the waveform into two symmetrical halves.

**AC Waveform Characteristics**

- • The Period, (T) is the length of time in seconds that the waveform takes to repeat itself from start to finish. This can also be called the
*Periodic Time*of the waveform for sine waves, or the*Pulse Width*for square waves. - • The Frequency, (ƒ) is the number of times the waveform repeats itself within a one second time period. Frequency is the reciprocal of the time period, ( ƒ = 1/T ) with the unit of frequency being the
*Hertz*, (Hz). - • The Amplitude (A) is the magnitude or intensity of the signal waveform measured in volts or amps.

**Waveforms** are basically a visual representation of the variation of a voltage or current plotted to a base of time”. Generally, for AC waveforms this horizontal base line represents a zero condition of either voltage or current. Any part of an AC type waveform which lies above the horizontal zero axis represents a voltage or current flowing in one direction.

Likewise, any part of the waveform which lies below the horizontal zero axis represents a voltage or current flowing in the opposite direction to the first. Generally for sinusoidal AC waveforms the shape of the waveform above the zero axis is the same as the shape below it. However, for most non-power AC signals including audio waveforms this is not always the case.

The most common periodic signal waveforms that are used in Electrical and Electronic Engineering are the *Sinusoidal Waveforms*. However, an alternating AC waveform may not always take the shape of a smooth shape based around the trigonometric sine or cosine function. AC waveforms can also take the shape of either *Complex Waves*, *Square Waves* or *Triangular Waves*.

The time taken for an **AC Waveform** to complete one full pattern from its positive half to its negative half and back to its zero baseline again is called a **Cycle** and one complete cycle contains both a positive half-cycle and a negative half-cycle. The time taken by the waveform to complete one full cycle is called the **Periodic Time** of the waveform, and is given the symbol “T”.

The number of complete cycles that are produced within one second (cycles/second) is called the **Frequency**, symbol ƒ of the alternating waveform. Frequency is measured in **Hertz**, ( Hz ) named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz.

Then we can see that a relationship exists between cycles (oscillations), periodic time and frequency (cycles per second), so if there are ƒ number of cycles in one second, each individual cycle must take 1/ƒ seconds to complete.